January 11, 2011 | In:
Ensuring Health & Safety
1.1 The Academy recognises and accepts that every one of its employees, students and visitors to the Academy is entitled to a safe and healthy environment.
1.2 It is the intention of the Governing Body of the Academy that all appropriate steps will be taken to meet statutory requirements, recognised codes of practice and guidance notes in establishing a safe and healthy environment. The “References” section at the end of this policy sets out these sources.
1.3 The overall high quality of the environment will be evidence of a strong ethos of housekeeping, which will permeate the Academy community and an awareness of the fabric and appearance of the building will be demonstrated by students and employees on a daily basis.
1.4 All employees have both a duty and a responsibility to take reasonable care to avoid injury to themselves and others and to co-operate to ensure statutory duties and obligations are fulfilled. The Academy’s Health and Safety Policy can only be successfully implemented with the full co-operation of everyone concerned.
2.1 The Department for Children, Schools & Families (DCSF) guidance note on the statutory responsibilities of schools is given in Annex 1 of this Policy.
Responsibilities of the Governing Body
2.2 In discharging its responsibilities, the Governing Body will:
- make itself familiar with the requirements of the appropriate legislation and codes of practice
- create and monitor a management structure for Health and Safety
- ensure that there is an effective and enforceable policy for the provision of health and safety throughout the Academy, and, that it is implemented
- periodically assess the effectiveness of the policy and ensure that any necessary changes are made
- identify and evaluate risks relating to possible accidents and incidents connected with Academy-sponsored activities, including work experience
2.3 In particular, the Governing Body undertakes to provide as far as is reasonably practicable:
- a safe place for all users of the site to work, including safe means of entry and exit
- plant, equipment and systems of work that are safe
- safe and healthy working conditions that take account of appropriate statutory requirements, code of practice and guidance
- supervision, training and instruction so that all staff and students can perform their school-related activities in a healthy and safe manner
- provide safety and protective equipment and clothing, with associated guidance, instruction and supervision
Responsibilities of the Principal
2.4 The Principal has responsibility for the day-to-day development and implementation of safe working practices and conditions for all staff, students and visitors. The Principal will take all reasonably practicable steps to ensure that the Health and Safety policy is implemented.
Responsibilities of the Health & Safety Manager
2.5 The Academy’s Director of Finance & Resources will be responsible for the day to day implementation of the Health and Safety Policy and will be the designated contact with the Health & Safety Executive.
Responsibilities of Supervisory Staff
2.6 All supervisory staff will make themselves familiar with the requirements of health and safety legislation and codes of practice that are relevant to the work of their area of responsibility.
2.7 In addition to the general duties that all members of staff have, they will be directly responsible to the H&S Manager for the implementation and operation of the Academy’s Health and Safety Policy within their relevant departments and areas of responsibility.
2.8 Responsibility for aspects of Health and Safety are written into the Job Descriptions of the Academy’s managers.
2.9 Supervisory staff will take a direct interest in the Academy’s Health and Safety Policy and in ensuring that staff, students and others comply with its requirements.
Responsibilities of All Members of Staff
2.10 All staff are expected to familiarise themselves with the Health and Safety aspects of their work and avoid conduct which would put themselves or anyone else at risk.
2.11 In particular, members of staff will:
- be familiar with the Health and Safety Policy and all safety requirements laid down by the Governing Body
- ensure that staff, students, visitors and contractors are applying Health and Safety regulations, rules, routines and procedures effectively
- see that all plant, machinery and equipment are in good and safe working order and adequately guarded, and not make or allow improper use of such plant, machinery and equipment
- use the correct equipment and tools for the job and any protective equipment or safety devices that may be supplied
- ensure that toxic, hazardous and highly flammable substances are correctly used, stored and labelled
- report any defects in the premises, plant, equipment and facilities that they observe to the H&S Manager
- take an active interest in promoting Health and Safety and suggest ways of reducing risks
2.12 Responsibilities of Subject Teachers
- The safety of students in classrooms, laboratories and workshops is the responsibility of class teachers; teachers have traditionally carried responsibility for the safety of students when they are in their charge.
- If for any reason, e.g. the condition or location of equipment, the physical state of the room or the splitting of a class for practical work, a teacher considers he or she cannot accept this responsibility; he or she should discuss the matter with the Director of Finance & Resources or the Principal Student Progress before allowing practical work to take place.
2.13 Responsibilities of Students
To exercise personal responsibility for the safety of self and class-mates;
- To observe standards of dress consistent with safety and/or hygiene (this would preclude unsuitable footwear, knives and other items considered dangerous);
- To observe all the safety rules of the Academy and in particular the instructions of teaching colleagues given in an emergency;
- To use and not willfully misuse, neglect or interfere with things provided for his/her safety.
All students and parents should be made aware of the contents of this section.
2.14 The Academy Health and Safety Representatives
- The Governing Body and the Principal recognise the role of Health and Safety Representatives appointed by recognised Trade Unions.
- Health and Safety Representatives must be allowed to investigate accidents and potential hazards, pursue employees’ complaints and carry out the Academy inspections within directed time, but wherever practicable outside teaching time. They are also entitled to certain information, e.g. about accidents, and to paid time off to train for and carry out their Health and Safety functions. However, they are not part of the management structure and are not carrying out the duties on behalf of the Principal or Governing Body.
2.15 Health and Safety Committee
- The Academy will have a Health and Safety Committee which will monitor Health and Safety issues within the Academy. The Committee will report to the Governing Body.
3. Safety Education
3.1 The DCSF has published guidance for schools on Safety Education. This guidance shows how the curriculum for Personal, Social and Health Education (PSHE) and Citizenship can address the issue of accidental injury and death in children and young people.
3.2 One of the aims of PSHE is to enable children to apply personal and social skills to a range of contexts in their lives. Skills in risk assessment learned in relation to preventing accidents are transferable to other issues.
3.3 This DCSF guidance also sets out the general teaching requirement for health and safety in relation to science, design and technology, information and communication technology, art and design, and physical education.
4. Health & Safety Arrangements
4. Fire Safety
4.1 Appropriate procedures for ensuring that safety precautions are properly managed will be formulated and disseminated to all staff. These procedures will include Fire Drills and the use of Fire Extinguishers.
4.2 The Academy’s evacuation procedure will be prominently displayed in all teaching rooms, offices and curriculum areas. All staff and students must be fully conversant with the procedures for evacuation of the premises in case of a fire/bomb threat. Evacuation procedures will be tested each term. The evacuation and safety of visitors and contractors will be the responsibility of the person who they are visiting or working for.
4.3 All fire fighting equipment will be checked annually by an approved contractor and records maintained. The fire alarm will be tested weekly from different points when the site is not in use and records maintained. All emergency lighting will be tested six-monthly and records maintained.
If the Fire Siren is sounded you should leave the building immediately by the designated route and assemble on the field adjacent to the tennis courts (Earlham Road).
5. Arrangements – Supervision of Students
5.1 All colleagues are required to take note of the section on Daily Routines in the Staff Handbook. A Staff Duty Rota is published on the day before the start of the Term and made available to all colleagues. A lunch time Supervision Rota, setting out the duty areas for the teachers (Senior Mid-day Supervisors) and Mid-day Supervisory Assistants on duty is also published at the start of the Autumn Term.
5.2 To discharge our responsibilities and duties we need to maintain a high level of supervision. This applies at all times, in and out of lessons. Many legal cases have established that we have a duty of care to the Academy’s students.
5.3 During lesson changeover time all colleagues are asked to be vigilant, whether they are themselves moving around the Academy, or remaining in their teaching area. At such times everyone is “on duty”.
5.4 The purpose of the “duty” is to ensure that order and discipline prevail and that dangerous activities are prevented.
5.5 End of Day Procedures – All teaching colleagues have a duty of care to all students from 8.35 – 3.15. In addition to ensure we have a safe exit from the Academy premises as well as from the buildings at the end of the day.
5.6 The Principal, the Vice Principal and other members of the Management Team expect to be on duty and on call for emergencies at all times of the day.
5.7 Where students need to take medicines in the Academy as part of a course of treatment, arrangements will be made through the Academy Office.
5.8 The following are Out of Bounds:
- Workshops and Laboratories – except with a teacher present.
- The Car Parks and Cycle Sheds – except for arrival and departure.
- The Halls and Stages – except with a teacher present.
- Blackdale Woods.
- The area adjacent to the Fire Escape from Room E29 and the areas behind the Swimming Pool and the Year 7 Zone.
5.9 Areas are designated for the parking of colleagues and visitors’ cars. The car parking areas are out of bounds to students, except when moving from one area of the Academy to another. They are not suitable for unsupervised play.
6. Emergency Procedures
6.1 Illness or Accident
If anyone should become ill or suffer injury as a result of an accident the procedures outlined in the Essential Information & Procedures Guide should be followed.
- First Aid should be rendered, but only as far as knowledge and skill admit.
- The patient should be given all possible reassurances, and if absolutely necessary, removed from danger.
- The First Aid Room is next door to the main reception, where first aiders are available. If circumstances necessitate, one of these persons should be summoned immediately to tend to the patient.
- Transport to Hospital. If an ambulance is required the Office in conjunction with the Student Family Link Workers will use the emergency “999” service. If the Office cannot be contacted (say, out of the Academy hours) the person in charge should call an ambulance. Sometimes it may be appropriate to transport a student to a casualty department without using the emergency service but it should be noted that this should always be on a voluntary basis. There will be cases of a less severe nature than those requiring transport by ambulance. Wherever possible the casualty should be accompanied. Parents must be kept fully informed in all cases.
6.2 Accident Reports
- As soon as possible after the incident every case of injury or accident must be fully and accurately reported on the appropriate accident form and, where possible, detailed statements should be obtained from witnesses. Accident forms are obtainable from the Academy office.
- Completed forms should be passed immediately to the Health & Safety Officer
- An accident report must be completed for all accidents, (to employees, students, members of the public), however minor, and – for employees only – an entry must be made in the accident book, which is held in the Academy office.
- The Health & Safety Officer is responsible for passing the Accident Book to the Principal for signature.
7.1 Protective clothing/gloves/masks/helmets must be provided and used by technicians and site supervisory staff when required. Staff and students must be provided with and use protective glasses/eye shields in all workshops and laboratories. Visitors must be provided with protective clothing as appropriate.
7.2 The following equipment must be checked annually by approved inspectors or an appropriately trained member of staff:
- fume cupboards
- all electrical appliances
- workshop equipment, e.g. lathes, kilns
- fixed gymnasium equipment
7.3 When new equipment is purchased, it is the responsibility of the departmental manager, with the assistance of the H&S Manager as necessary, to ensure that it meets appropriate educational standards and that its installation and use conforms to Health and Safety requirements.
7.4 Equipment, materials and chemicals must be stored in the appropriate storage containers and areas. All containers must be labelled with the correct hazard sign and contents label. Managers should consider storage life when ordering new supplies. Reference must be made to Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) and the Ionising Radiations Regulations; copies of all relevant COSHH and regulations must be kept in the Science Department.
8.1 The Site Manager will monitor the cleaning standards of the cleaners. The standard required is laid down in the cleaning specification. Special consideration will be given to hygiene areas.
8.2 The Site Manager will monitor the efficiency of the waste collection service. Separate provision must be made for the collection and disposal of laboratory materials (chemicals, broken glass etc.,), clinical waste and normal refuse.
Educational trips and visits must be organised in accordance with the Academy’s “Off Site Procedures”.
Users of minibuses must be aware of and observe the following requirements:
- the driver must have a current licence and not been involved in any accident for the past five years, be aged 25 years or over and hold a full licence in Group ‘A’ or PSV
- Drivers of the minibus are required to complete a record form and supply aphotocopy of their driving licence
- where the transport of students is involved, drivers are required to haveundertaken a drivers’ assessment programme and received the resultingaccreditation
- when a charge is being made to passengers, the minibus permit must be displayed in the vehicle
- internal damage to the minibus is not covered by insurance and theresponsibility for the repair lies with the individual or organisation using the minibus (the Academy will decide upon the repairer to be used)
- only one person per seat is to be carried
- seat belts are to be worn by all passengers and the driver at all times
- the driver at the time when an offence was committed is responsible for the payment of fines incurred
- a log sheet must be taken on each journey, completed by recording the starting and closing mileage readings, detailing any defects and signing before returning, along with the vehicle keys and permit, to the Academy reception
11. Visitors to the Academy Site
11.1 All visitors to the Academy will sign in at the reception. Visitors will be collectedfrom reception by the member of staff concerned or escorted to the appropriate area of the Academy.
11.2 No contractor may undertake work on the Academy site without permission from the Site Manager other than in an emergency, e.g. fire, flooding or to make safe following theft/vandalism.
11.3 Contractors are responsible for the Health and Safety of their employees and for their safe working practices, which must not constitute a hazard to staff, students and visitors to the Academy.
11.4 Hirers of the Academy premises must use plant, equipment and substances correctly and use the appropriate safety equipment. They will be made aware of their obligations in relation to Health and Safety when making the booking.
11.5 Whilst on site, all visitors and contractors must wear an Academy visitor’s badge. Cleaning contractor’s employees must wear an identifiable uniform or an identity badge at all times. Temporary teaching staff on cover duties will be required to indicate their presence in the Academy by reporting to reception.
11.6 If a member of staff meets someone on site who they do not recognise and is not wearing a visitors badge, they should, if they do not feel threatened, enquire if the person needs assistance and direct them either to the Academy reception or off the site, as appropriate.
11.7 If an intruder is uncooperative in going to the reception or leaving the site, or a member of staff feels threatened, or is threatened with violence or a violent attack takes place, immediate help from the Police should be sought by telephone. A runner to the reception for a ‘999’ call may be quicker than using the internal telephone system.
12.1 All staff should be conscious of all aspects of the security of people and property. In particular, the emergency exit doors on the outer perimeter of the buildings should only be used in the event of emergencies and kept secure at all other times.
12.2 Maintaining security is aimed at reducing the opportunity for unauthorised persons to enter the buildings through non-designated access points. It is also necessary to be alert to the possible presence of unauthorised persons on site who may constitute a threat to staff, students and bona-fide visitors and contractors.
13. Critical Incidents
As part of its commitment for the well being of staff, students and visitors, the
Academy has set out a procedure which is to be adopted in the event of a critical incident occurring either on the Academy premises or on an activity away from the Academy site.
14. Healthy Eating
It is the policy of the Academy to encourage students to adopt eating habits that are conducive to a healthy lifestyle. To this end the Academy works with the catering team in providing menu options that support these aims.
15. Monitoring, Evaluation and Review
The Governing Body will review this policy at least every two years and assess its implementation and effectiveness.
16. Coping with the Sudden Death of a Student
A copy of the DCSF guidance notes on coping with the sudden death of a student is given as annex 2 to this policy.
17. Conclusion and Review
17.1 It is the responsibility of everyone to make these arrangements work. Colleagues must familiarise themselves with safety procedures. All teachers have a responsibility to make appropriate safety procedures known to the students in their care. This will ensure, as far as is reasonably practicable, that working conditions are safe and that the working life of everyone is accident free.
17.2 If an improvement or prohibition notice is served by an enforcement officer (e.g. Factories Inspector or Environmental Health Inspector), the Principal should immediately advise the Chair of Governors. If a prohibition notice is issued with immediate effect, the activities specified should cease forthwith.
17.3 Any colleague noticing a failure to comply with this statement of organisation and arrangements or other advice/guidance issued by the Principal in pursuance of the safety policy should immediately report the circumstances to the Principal.
17.4 Hazardous situations should also be reported immediately.
17.5 Suggestions by any colleague to improve standards of health and safety are welcomed by the Principal.
Date established by governing body: 30 November 2009
Date for full implementation: 30 November 2009
Date for review: November 2010
HSE Website – http://www.hse.gov.uk
HSE Five Steps to Risk Assessment – http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg163.pdf
HSE A Guide to Risk Assessment Requirements – http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg218.pdf
HSE Reporting school accidents – http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/edis1.pdf
A Guide to the Law for School Governors – http://www.governornet.co.uk/linkAttachments/GTTL%20June%202007%20-%20pdf.pdf
DCSF School Security website – http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/wholeschool/healthandsafety/schoolsecurity/
DCSF Health and Safety of Pupils on Educational Visits: A Good Practice Guide – http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/wholeschool/healthandsafety/visits/
DCSF Supporting Pupils with Medical Needs: A Good Practice Guide – http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/wholeschool/healthandsafety/medical/
DCSF Guidance on First Aid for Schools – http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/wholeschool/healthandsafety/firstaid/
DCSF/Home Office School Security: Dealing with Troublemakers – http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/wholeschool/healthandsafety/schoolsecurity/
DCSF Safety Education: Guidance for Schools, December 2001 – (Ref: DfES/0161/20002)
DCSF video “Can you see what they see?”
DCSF Guidance on Standards for School Premises (ref DfEE 0029/2000)
DCSF Safe Keeping: A good practice guide for health and safety in study support (Ref
HSE publications (priced and non-priced) are available from HSE Books Tel: 01787 881165
DCSF publications Tel: 0870 000 2288
HSE’s infoline is 0845 345 0055
Health and Safety legislation:
The Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974
The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999
Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR)
Education (School Premises) Regulations 1999 (SI 1999 No.2)School Standards and Framework Act 1998
School Inspections Act 1996
Education Act 1996
Health & Safety 9
DCSF Guidance (Annex 1)
Responsibility for Health and Safety in Schools
Health and Safety at Work Law
Health and safety responsibilities derive from the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 and associated regulations. Health and safety legislation is enforced by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE).
The Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 places overall responsibility for health and safety with the employer. Who this is varies with the type of school.
- For community schools, community special schools, voluntary controlled schools, maintained nursery schools and pupil referral units the employer is the Local Authority (LA)
- For foundation schools, foundation special schools and voluntary-aided schools, the employer is usually the governing body
- For independent schools, the employer is usually the governing body or proprietor
The Local Authority is the employer for statutory youth groups.
Education employers have duties to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable:
- the health, safety and welfare of teachers and other education staff
- the health and safety of pupils in-school and on off-site visits
- the health and safety of visitors to schools, and volunteers involved in any school activity
Employees have responsibilities too. The Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 and the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 apply to them as well.
- take reasonable care of their own and others health and safety
- co-operate with their employers
- carry out activities in accordance with training and instructions
- inform the employer of any serious risks
The HSE enforces health and safety law relating to the activities of LA’s and schools.
Because the employer is responsible for health and safety in the workplace and on work activities the HSE will normally take action against the employer. However, in some circumstances, for example where an employee failed to take notice of the employer’s policy or directions in respect of health and safety, the HSE may take action against the employee as well or instead.
Responsibility of All Schools
The employer must have a health and safety policy and arrangements to implement it. The Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 applies. Key elements of a health and safety policy are listed below; this is not a comprehensive list.
Employers must assess the risks of all activities, introduce measures to manage those risks, and tell their employees about the measures. The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 apply.
In practice, employers may delegate specific health and safety tasks to individuals (LA’s may delegate specific tasks to schools). But the employer retains the ultimate responsibility no matter who carries out the tasks. The employer should therefore maintain an audit track, making clear who is doing what and confirming that these tasks are being carried out.
Key Elements of a Health and Safety Policy
- a general statement of policy
- delegation of duties as allocated tasks
- arrangements made to put in place, monitor and review measures
- necessary to reach satisfactory health and safety standards
- training of staff in health and safety including competence in risk assessment
- off-site visits including school-led adventure activities
- selecting and controlling contractors
- First-Aid and supporting pupils’ medical needs
- School Security
- Occupational health services and work-related stress
- consultation arrangements with employees
- workplace safety for teachers, pupils and visitors
- violence to staff
- manual handling
- slips and trips
- on site vehicle movements
- management of asbestos
- control of hazardous substances
- maintenance and when necessary examination and test of plant and equipment such as electrical equipment, local exhaust ventilation, pressure systems, gas appliances, lifting equipment and glazing safety
- recording and reporting accidents to staff, pupils and visitors – including those reportable under the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR).
- fire safety, including testing of alarms and evacuation procedures dealing with health and safety emergencies – procedures and contacts
DCSF Guidance (Annex 2)
Coping with the sudden death of a pupil
Unfortunately, some head teachers will be faced, in the course of their professional lives, with a set of circumstances arising from the death of a pupil at school or elsewhere.
In such circumstances, head teachers may feel on their own and may need advice at that moment.
Accordingly, the Department has been asked to make advice available to help head teachers cope with the immediacy of a pupil’s sudden death at school.
The text below is based on work prepared by Chris Bridge, Head Teacher of Huntington School.
Working with the Police
Very soon after the death is announced the Police should visit as they have to carry out an investigation into the circumstances.
You will need to clear rooms or spaces for them to work in.
They may want to collect evidence.
The Police will normally tell the child’s next of kin and will want to speak at once to the usually very upset teacher who will need someone with them and will probably need to stay at school.
The Police will almost certainly tell you that you must not speculate on the cause of death. But remember that the media are under no such restriction.
- Where a pupil collapses during the school day when other pupils are present, is rushed to hospital and subsequently dies, those pupils will need to know what has happened before they leave at the end of the school day.
- It is important to agree with the Police the timing and content of the information that you give to pupils so as to meet the needs of the pupils whilst not impeding any Police investigation.
- Are there any siblings, close relatives, or boy/girl friend who needs to know first? Advise them first, but only when parents are ready to collect them.
- Gather the whole year group together with 20 minutes to go before the final bell. Timing is everything. The pupils will listen intently until you tell them that the pupil has died. Then they stop hearing. If the pupil has died as the result of an accident you may want to ask them not to speculate about the causes of the accident and not to spread rumours. Getting them to hear this is very difficult. Allow them ten minutes to just be together as a year group. They will need to cry. Expect that some pupils will contact the local press.
- If you want teachers to tell other pupils, you should have a statement ready for them to read out before you advise them.
This may have to be after you have told the key pupils. You will need to tell the teachers who were nearest to what happened first. Depending on who that teacher is, they will probably need someone with them. If you want teachers to tell other pupils for you, have a statement ready for them to read out before you advise them.
The Police will tell the parents of the child.
Getting a letter to other parents, which both expresses sympathy and gives factual information about the death, is very important. It saves the rumours, which can be intensely hurtful to other pupils, parents and teachers.
Dealing with the Media
Head teachers at community and voluntary controlled schools should contact their LA as soon as possible, especially if at all unclear about procedures for dealing with the media. It is recommended that the school should have an Emergency (or Critical Incident Recovery) Plan, which sets out procedures. Note: the LA may advise the school not to speak to the media and direct all enquiries to an appointed LA officer.
If your school does not already have a member of staff nominated as press officer, you may need to assign a colleague as press officer at once, even for fielding enquiries. You may well need intense help. A press officer may be required for the whole day.
The press and local TV channels may contact the parents and they together with the press may speculate about the cause of death. This is a very hard thing to deal with, especially if a TV crew has filmed this speculation by distraught parents.
You may find you have no time to prepare interviews and certainly no time to filter statements through the Director of Education even if the LA wants you to do this.
Keep expressing your sympathy for the parents so that editors will find it hard to cut this part of your statement.
If there is a post mortem, this may happen very quickly, possibly within 24 hours of the death.
Ensure you are advised of the results of any post mortem as soon as possible.
Your LA may want to hold onto this information, but you will need it. The best way to stop media speculation is to give them facts.
Helping the School Recover
This is a long-term issue. You can help a school recover through a memorial service or assembly and through the use of counsellors.
Recognise that those who go to counsellors may well not be those whose need is greatest.
A brother or sister may well have intense needs that appear later. It is very difficult for the school to know when to stop making allowances.
The Department has already issued guidance on coping with emergencies off-site in its 1998 good practice guide Health & Safety of Pupils on Educational Visits and three-part supplement published in July 2002. See http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/wholeschool/healthandsafety/visits/
Time set aside to plan for how your school would cope in an emergency could make a huge difference to how effectively one is handled. See http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/emergencies/
Assistance from the DCSF
The Department will help in any way it can. Please telephone the Pupil Health and Safety Team on 0870 000 2288